About the ResearchUse the Scale
We created this scale because…
Over 16,000 Canadians die each year from unrecognized warning signs of a heart attack. This alone accounts for 29% of all deaths in Canada each year. 49-92% of people experience warning signs but do not recognize them as warning signs of a heart attack because they occur at unusual times and are totally unexpected.
Warning signs, or Prodromal Symptoms are described as unusual or unexpected symptoms that come and go, so they are hard to recognize, because they change in level of severity and frequency and can happen days, weeks, or months before a heart attack. Sometimes two or three symptoms can happen at a time. Some examples of prodromal symptoms include: chest pain/tightness, heaviness, discomfort, dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, or headaches.
The Prodromal Symptoms-Screening Scale (PS-SS) was developed to alert people to the warning signs of heart disease. Women and men with known heart disease and health care providers who have expertise in cardiovascular health care assisted in the development of this tool. It has been previously used and tested by individuals with heart disease and is reliable and valid.
The Cardiac Prodromal Symptoms Educational Strategy Team
This innovative research team brings together recognized collaborators and researchers with requisite expertise in cardiac prodromal symptom presentation (O’Keefe-McCarthy) cardiac pain (O’Keefe-McCarthy, Keeping-Burke); cardiovascular/adult education (Boyd, Gibson); educational strategy uptake and education (Taplay), design, discover, deliver methodology (Chalmers/Levy), qualitative analysis (Taplay), statistical analysis (McPherson), knowledge translation (Keeping-Burke, O’Keefe-McCarthy), clinical experts in cardiovascular medicine and nursing (Boyd, O’Keefe-McCarthy, Keeping-Burke), and advocates for community-based health services, public education and health promotion (Stearne, Gibson [Heart Niagara] and advocacy of prevention of cardiovascular disease and education about cardiac health across Canada (Kennedy, Sawdon [Cardiac Health Foundation of Canada).
Sheila O'Keefe-McCarthy, RN, PhD
Assistant Professor, Brock University Department of Nursing
Ontario Research Chair-Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses-National Research Committee
Lisa Keeping-Burke, RN, PhD
Associate Dean of Health Research
Associate Professor, Department of Nursing & Health Sciences, UNB
Adjunct Professor, School of Nursing, Queen's University
Karyn Taplay, RN, PhD
Associate Professor, Brock University Department of Nursing
Creative Director, Principle Pivot Design Group
Senior User Experience Designer Pivot Design Group
- Karen Stearne, BSc
- Don Gibson, NP-PHC
- Barbara Kennedy, BA, B.Ed, MA
- John Sawdon, M.Sc
- Lisa Boyd, RN BScN CCN(C)